Varicose veins

causes, symptoms and treatment of varicose veins

Varicose veins are a pathological process in the human body, expressed in the defeat of the veins (the diameter of the lumen increases, the wall becomes thinner, "nodes" are formed, local enlargements similar toaneurysms.

Stages of varicose veins

In current medicine it is customary to distinguish 4 stages of the disease:

  • 1 initial stage:is mainly characterized by the presence of intradermal subcutaneous varicose veins (vascular networks); segmental varicose veins can be seen; with varicose veins of 1 degree, there is not completely a pathological violation of hemodynamics;
  • Stage 2:in this stage there are segmental varicose veins associated with small saphenous veins; Grade 2 disease is associated with decreased function of perforators and valves;
  • Stage 3:Stage of involvement of the great veins in the context of hemodynamic alterations;
  • Stage 4:The nature of the disease corresponds to stage 3 of the development of the pathology in men or women, but there is a deep injury to the veins.

Causes of varicose veins

The main causes of varicose veins in the extremities or other parts of the body are lifestyle and heredity. In the latter case, a person has weak vessel walls from birth, which easily stretch under load (the light expands), passes fluid through themselves (contributes to the formation of swelling).

Obesity can contribute to the development of pathologies. Excess weight is the cause of constant excessive pressure on the walls of the veins, which often leads to deformation of the vessels. The causes of the onset of the disease are hormonal changes associated with a decrease in the tone of the wall (for example, when taking contraceptives, during pregnancy).

The development of the disease can cause an increase in intra-abdominal pressure, which is observed in a person with a persistent cough, prostate adenoma, chronic constipation. It is dangerous due to the appearance of excessive pressure on the vessels, causing them to varicose expansion. The result is hemorrhoids, varicose veins in the legs, varicocele.

The age of a person is also one of the possible causes of the appearance of the disease. During their service in the body, the vessels lose their elasticity and may not withstand the pressure on them. The development of the disease is often observed in patients with deep vein thrombosis. At risk are those who develop or congenital abnormalities in the structure of the veins that cause increased chronic intravenous pressure (for example, arteriovenous fistulas).

Symptoms of varicose veins

In the early stages, the disease can continue without showing any symptoms. The appearance of blood vessels on the surface of the skin at this time does not cause a person any inconvenience (perhaps only cosmetic).

Over time, people begin to notice swelling, heaviness, and fatigue in their legs. This is followed by a period in which the veins begin to feel good, they protrude from the surface of the skin; under the latter, gnarled formations appear.

Violation of trophism leads to hyperpigmentation, cracks, dry skin, eczema, varicose dermatitis, ulceration. When a period of severe circulatory disorders occurs, seizures can occur, trophic ulcers appear on the body, which are difficult to treat.

Swelling of the legs, which, as a rule, is always a consequence of varicose veins, thickens over time, acquires a bulky appearance and to the touch.

Diagnosis of varicose veins

The disease is easily diagnosed in the extremities, especially in the later stages, when characteristic visible changes occur on the surface of the skin. Diagnosis in earlier stages and with pathology of the internal veins is made today by triplex angioscanning, Doppler ultrasound and ultrasound. Based on its results, the doctor judges the degree of development of the disease and prescribes treatment.

The most comprehensive results are obtained with angioscanning, which evaluates all veins in the human body. This method is used in 95%. . . 98% of all cases of the disease, with some of its relapses, radioisotope scanning is also used.

Treatment of varicose veins

Therapy includes an integrated approach to treating the disease:

  • angioprotectors, phlebotropic drugs are prescribed (to strengthen the vascular walls, protect them from damage, increase their elasticity);
  • in addition to medication, the patient is prescribed physical therapy exercises that stimulate blood flow in the veins, helping to prevent blood stagnation;
  • It is suggested to wear special compression hosiery (helps to push the blood along the vascular bed);
  • procedures include treatment of phlebosclerosing disease;
  • surgical methods are used;
  • Folk methods for correcting varicose veins are recommended;
  • massage and pneumocompression therapy are performed.

An integrated approach to the fight against varicose veins allows you to exert the necessary influence on the pathogenesis, symptoms of the disease. As a result, the condition of patients noticeably improves, and complete elimination of the disease is possible. The use of surgical techniques is possible in stages that are not amenable to therapeutic or other treatment: the decision is made by the phlebologist.

Treatment of varicose veins in pregnant and lactating women

Varicose veins in women during pregnancy and when feeding a baby do not always indicate a disease. Treat them or not is determined by a phlebologist, with whom mandatory consultation is necessary during such periods of life.

If urgent action is needed, the best treatment for breastfeeding mothers and pregnant women is to wear compression stockings, be active, or bandage themselves with elastic bandages.

The lactation period is characterized by an increased load on the veins, so you should not expect a great effect from the treatment measures taken during this period. It is better to carry out intensive measures, necessary operations after breastfeeding.

Sclerotherapy, which is now preferred by many patients for treatment, is also ineffective for pregnant and lactating women. It is better to interrupt the procedures and continue them later.


The need for an operation, as the most effective treatment, is determined only by a doctor on the basis of a special examination. Usually this decision is made with advanced forms of the disease: for example, if the legs are covered with bulging veins, similar to thick knotted cords.

Most of the time, during surgery, damaged areas of the superficial veins are removed; deep vessels are never operated. The flow of blood through the removed veins is stopped and compensated by deeply localized vessels. According to experts, blood circulation is not disturbed, but even improves.

Today, minimally invasive techniques are used in vein surgeries, which allow minimizing trauma to the human body. One of them is short removal, which involves a thorough examination of the vessels and removal only of those parts that are affected by varicose veins.

Leading clinics practice cryoflebectomy, laser treatment of the disease using the intravascular coagulation method. The first operation involves inserting a cryoprobe into the vein through an incision in the groin and removing the frozen vessel while it is being removed. The second involves the introduction of a laser light-emitting diode into a vein and the action of laser radiation on the vessel walls. The result is instant destruction; the procedure itself is done in a few minutes and the patient receives minimal trauma.

Cream for varicose veins

An integrated approach to the treatment of varicose veins allows you to fight this disease in the most effective way. For this, pills, ointments, injections, gels and creams are used.

The courses use special therapeutic creams for varicose veins; its duration is determined individually by the phlebologist. These remedies for varicose veins are applied only at night or, if indicated, three times a day. After two weeks of application, the veins of the legs become smaller, the "stars" of the vessels practically disappear, the skin becomes more cared for and beautiful.

Compression underwear for varicose veins

Wearing compression stockings is one of the measures that help fight disease. The principle of its positive effect on the body is to create a pressure of different forces on different parts of the limbs.

Maximum compression (100% possible for underwear type) in stockings is above the ankle, which helps blood to rise more easily. Higher pressure is less; their difference helps move stagnant blood, helping to eliminate or alleviate the symptoms of the disease.

Compression underwear is made of elastic material: lycra, cotton, microfiber, nylon. It has an aesthetic appearance, without visible seams. The clothes are breathable, pleasantly caressing the skin, hypoallergenic. The shelf life of the medicinal properties of the products is up to six months.

Treatment of varicose veins with traditional medicine

This unpleasant disease has long been treated with home remedies. In this case, the affected parts of the body acquire an aesthetic appearance, the veins are strengthened, which excludes the manifestation of the disease in the future.

Usually, home remedies are used simultaneously with removing varicose veins with medications. Here are some recommendations for using the forces of nature in the fight against this disease:

  • herbs: wormwood flowers and leaves are ground (you can use a blender); the resulting suspension in a ratio of 1: 1 is mixed with sour milk; the resulting mixture, wrapped in gauze, is applied to the bumps and "cobwebs" of the skin;
  • home treatment is possible with red tomatoes - they are cut into slices, which are placed on problem areas of the skin; hold, fixed with a bandage, for 3. . . 4 hours.
  • tomato juice - from effective helpers in the fight against varicose veins; they drink it at least one glass every day:
  • helps to relieve heaviness in the legs, taking painful sensations on an empty stomach every morning a teaspoon of ground nutmeg.

Prevention of varicose veins

A disease is easier to prevent than to cure. You should take this into account and follow these tips:

  • shoes must not have high heels (more than 5 . . . 6 cm); it must be comfortable and convenient for you;
  • move more; do not take an elevator, it is better to walk to your floor;
  • do simple exercises all the time: move your feet in different directions; alternate raising the toes with the lowering of the heels;
  • if possible, swim more, bike, jog;
  • don't pass, try to maintain your weight;
  • prevention of varicose veins includes the requirement to stop smoking;
  • massage your feet with your fingers and palms more often;

Contraindications in case of illness: weight lifting, weight transport (eg lifting bags to the ground).