What surgery to remove varicose veins to prefer? How is the removal of varicose veins?
Varicose veins are a pathological process that affects the veins, altering their normal structure and thinning their walls.
This disease, in general, is not fatal, but if this process is started, it can become a very serious problem.
The need for surgical intervention can only be determined by a physician, which is based on a study of the whole body. If the disease begins to bother more and more with its symptoms, the walls of the veins begin to increase, it is necessary to seek advice.
It is better not to reject the proposed operation. In many cases, it may be the only way to get rid of varicose veins.
Indications for surgery
There are special indications for surgery to remove varicose veins, which may lead the treating physician to suggest surgery:
- extensive varicose veins;
- excessively large pathological varicose veins;
- bright signs of bleeding (swelling and high fatigue of the legs);
- acute thrombophlebitis;
- trophic ulcers.
Contraindications for surgery
There are also contraindications for the removal of varicose veins, in the presence of which any operation will be strictly contraindicated. These include the following:
- the patient is too old;
- late stage of disease development;
- infectious processes with complications;
- ischemic heart problems;
- acute hypertension;
- presence of serious skin diseases (pyoderma, eczema, erysipelas and others);
In the event that surgical treatment is impossible, the doctor looks for alternative methods of influence that can affect the disease and cure it.
Which veins usually require surgery
Each person has a vein system, which can be conditionally divided into superficial, deep and communicative, which connects the previous two.
Most of the blood flow passes through the deep veins and only about 10% is diverted to the subcutaneous veins.
However, it is they who can be affected by varicose veins. If large bumps began to appear on the surface of the skin and the symptoms became very bright, an intervention may be required
Preparation for the procedure
During surgery, veins damaged by varicose veins will be removed.
It should be noted that there is no disturbance of normal blood flow, so there is no point in being afraid of the operation.
As a general rule, the traces after disappearing in a few months.
As a general rule, no lengthy preoperative preparation is required to remove varicose veins.
Then, the necessary investigations are carried out to identify without fail the state of the body.
In advance, it is necessary to inform the surgeon about the presence of possible allergies to various medications, as well as what medications were taken during the week.
Immediately before surgery, you need to take a shower, shave the limb on which it will be performed.
Types of operations
Each operation to eliminate varicose veins, no matter how different, will have the same list of contraindications and intervention prescriptions.
The main differences will be in the form of implementation, characteristic features and differences.
This type of intervention, like others, will aim to restore normal blood flow through the veins. Removal of the affected parts usually takes no more than two hours.
At the beginning of the operation, spinal anesthesia is performed. A vein with varicose veins is surgically removed through incisions of up to five millimeters with a special probe.
Before that, in the place where the varicose vein flows into the deep vein, it is tied and only after that it is cut.
It can be considered an analog of phlebectomy, but it is performed according to some peculiarities.
For example, a vein is removed by a prick, not a cut. This allows you to achieve a fast recovery period and a high cosmetic effect.
In general, the entire operation is similar to phlebectomy.
This operation is designed for the day of the removal of varicose veins in the legs. Initially, a tube is inserted through a small incision made in the groin area.
The vein is tied off, an additional incision is made below the knee joint, through which the affected vein is removed. Its branches are removed through other small incisions.
The main positive difference of this type of intervention with respect to others will be the fact that the rehabilitation period is quite short. Soon after, the patient will be able to return to a moderately active life.
This type of procedure involves removing only part of the affected vein.
Initially, the doctor determines the area to be removed, after which 2 punctures are made in it and through them they are removed.
The intervention has a high cosmetic effect.
In general, it is produced using a similar technology with atraumatic pickling.
Endoscopic vein dissection
The surgical procedure is performed using an endoscope, which allows you to monitor your progress.
During the operation, an incision is made in the affected varicose vein through which the scope is inserted.
Thanks to this, the doctor monitors his progress and minimizes the possible negative consequences by an order of magnitude.
The vein is ligated through a small incision that is carefully measured. Usually there are no special difficulties in the intervention process, so it is successful.
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Endovasal laser coagulation
Laser coagulation is performed by the action of a laser on the affected area. In this case, the lumen of the vessel is completely closed, and in the future it is completely absorbed.
The indication for this particular type of intervention is:
- lumen expansion in veins;
- the pathologically altered trunk veins have a straight course;
- signs of trophic disorders;
- a small number of tributary veins affected by varicose veins;
- large perforating faults in the tibia.
Vein removal is performed in the supine position. After marking the area to be removed, a special light guide is inserted.
This is followed by tumescent anesthesia and an ultrasound-guided Doppler operation.
Radio Frequency Ablation
The advantage of this method is the possibility of not performing any surgery. Also, the rehabilitation period is very short.
During the operation, a radiofrequency catheter is inserted into the trunk of the vein, with the help of which a current is applied to its walls. The high frequency of the current allows the barrel to be sealed.
It is worth noting that clinicians caution that in some cases the effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation may be an order of magnitude less than EVLK.
Complications after surgery
After surgery, complications are unlikely, but still possible.
Its appearance will depend on a number of symptoms, from the condition of the veins to the ability of the skin to heal.
Of course, these factors are purely individual, so it does not make sense to say exactly whether the appearance of symptoms is possible.
Still, the most common consequences of removing varicose veins by surgery are worth highlighting:
- Thromboembolism.It involves the development of thrombosis in the deep layers of the veins and the appearance of infection in the tissues. To prevent the phenomenon, you should end bed rest as soon as possible and strictly follow all the recommendations of the doctor.
- Bleed. They usually appear during the dressing process and are not dangerous.
- Contusions.They leave in a couple of weeks.
- Pain in the extremitiescan last for several days.
- Temperature rise, which is short-lived.
In addition, a relapse of the disease is possible, since the surgical intervention does not imply a cure for varicose veins, but only allows to eliminate the affected parts.
Most of the possible complications are only temporary measures. The danger is only the first problem, as it can lead to a new intervention.
During the recovery process, you will need to constantly wear an elastic bandage for a couple of weeks to ensure good compression, healing, and prevent potential complications.
In addition, the doctor may prescribe venotonic medications.
The timing of rehabilitation measures will depend on the condition of the skin, as well as the stage of varicose vein lesions.
Immediately after the intervention, it is worth staying in bed and not disturbing the leg, but the next day, when the compression bandage is performed, it is not only possible, but also necessary to start walking.
It is recommended to participate in physiotherapy exercises, to perform massages in the tissue restoration process after surgery.
They will significantly increase blood flow and prevent the development of blood clots. Exercise is especially important for older people, as their blood flow slows down significantly.