Varicose veins of the lower extremities (VBLK)

When people see a VDVL diagnosis in a medical book, they often don't understand it. In fact, this term hides varicose veins of the lower extremities. This disease is characterized by the lengthening of the blood vessels and their greater deformation. This pathology is very common. Approximately 76% of residents have varicose veins in the legs. Next, we will look at the symptoms of the disease and how to prevent it from developing.

Causes of the onset of the disease

The disease can be primary or secondary. It all starts with a failure of the venous valves. it can be congenital or acquired. With congenital insufficiency, varicose veins manifest in childhood. Acquired deficiency develops against the background of exposure to pathogenic factors. These include:

  • hard physical work;
  • prolonged stay in a position;
  • period of hormonal changes;
  • prolonged use of inappropriate hormonal drugs;
  • pregnancy.

Nor should bad habits be ruled out. Under the influence of ethanol and nicotine, the vascular walls become more fragile, which accelerates the development of VBNK. Some doctors believe that this disease is common to all people, since due to the upright posture on the veins and skeleton, a huge load falls. Other experts do not support this theory and believe that the patients themselves are to blame for the formation of varicose veins.

causes of varicose veins of the extremities

Symptoms of varicose veins

The manifestations of the disease depend on its stage. In the first stage, patients worry only about the visual manifestations of the disease. In humans, spider veins appear, veins begin to appear under the skin after exercise or at the end of the day. Some patients complain of a feeling of heaviness in the legs. Stage II venous dilation symptoms:

  • increased fatigue;
  • strong feeling of heaviness in the legs;
  • feet and lower leg swell during short walks;
  • Leg and foot cramps are seen at night.

In the second stage of the disease, the visual manifestations become more pronounced. In the standing position, the veins are very pronounced and the edema is noticeable. If the patient stands a little, the symptoms diminish or disappear completely. The third stage of varicose veins is determined by the pronounced expansion of the veins. The skin becomes drier, trophic ulcers often occur, requiring the use of special drugs for healing. The person constantly experiences pain in the extremities.

Diagnosis of varicose veins

Usually, the phlebologist notices the first symptoms of the disease during a routine examination of the patient's legs. After examining the patient's complaints, the doctor may resort to instrumental examination of the veins. VBNK varicose veins diagnosis and diagnosis are made in 90% of cases based on the results of ultrasound. Of course, the patient will have to pass biochemical and clinical blood tests. If the ultrasound gives questionable results, then the patient is referred for the following type of diagnosis:

  • duplex scan;
  • contrast computed tomography;
  • radiopaque phlebography;
  • occlusal plethysmography;
  • reovasography.
Diagnostic Options for Lower Extremity Varicose Veins

Effective treatment

Varicose vein therapy is multifaceted. This is not to say that only one way can help a person cope with illness. The treatment of varicose veins begins with the taking of medications and the use of creams, ointments or gels. Compression stockings are also recommended. If these methods fail, patients are referred for physical therapy and surgery.

Elastic compression therapy

Knitted underwear with a certain degree of pressure can be worn even without varicose veins to reduce the load on the blood vessels. If you have been diagnosed with this condition, be sure to purchase specialized stockings or bandages. The degree of compression must be determined by the phlebologist. Also, instead of medical underwear, you can use elastic bandages, but this is not very convenient, since you have to wear them constantly.

Taking medications

Medication is rarely effective in the later stages of the disease. On its own, it will not be able to prevent further development of the disease, but it contributes to the restoration of blood vessels. Doctors typically prescribe the following types of medications to patients:

  • Tone up the veins. They contain substances that intervene in the construction of the vascular wall.
  • Improved microcirculation. Medicines in this group make blood and other nutrients move faster through vessels.
  • Prevention of blood clots. These drugs help the liver break down bad cholesterol.
  • Pain relief. These drugs have a cooling effect on the legs.

Performing sclerotherapy

Specialized substances are injected into the affected vein, damaging it from the inside. As a result, over time, it contracts and becomes a tendon. If the vessel is very stretched, this method may not be effective as the medication will dissolve and the vein will re-enter the normal bloodstream. In addition, this technique is contraindicated for allergy sufferers.

Hirudotherapy

One of the reasons for the development of varicose veins is "thick" blood. Leeches will help get rid of this problem. Hirudotherapy should not be performed in allergic people or in people suffering from anemia. As for the procedure itself, 3-4 leeches are placed on the site of the venous nodule and the rest are placed throughout the entire vein. The procedure is performed once every 7-14 days. It is often impossible to go to hirudotherapy, since the patient can develop anemia.

Physiotherapy

The patient is exposed to specialized medical devices that improve blood microcirculation and increase the tone of the vascular walls. This is both traditional electrophoresis and segmental barotherapy. This also includes massage and the use of low-frequency magnets. The treating physician should select the type of physical therapy that is appropriate for the patient based on the results of the examination.

physical therapy for varicose veins of the lower extremities

Surgical treatment

Lower extremity varicose vein surgery is one of the most effective ways to eliminate the disease. Compared with the conservative method, the surgical method allows you to completely get rid of the damaged vessel and stop the progression of the disease. Surgical methods:

  • phlebectomy;
  • miniphlebectomy;
  • endoscopic vein dissection;
  • radiofrequency ablation;
  • peeled (short or atraumatic);
  • laser coagulation.
varicose vein laser treatment

Proper nutrition

Food should be low in calories, but at the same time rich in useful vitamins. The patient can eat all kinds of meats, but only stewed, baked or boiled. It is not recommended to fry food in oil. It is advisable that the main part of the diet consists of fruits and vegetables. They contain many vitamins and minerals that are beneficial for cellular metabolism.

nutritional rules for varicose veins

Spa treatment

A visit to specialized centers is shown to all people with a chronic illness. This list includes patients with VBNK. In case of vascular injuries, it is best to choose resorts where there is radon water. If there are changes in the trophism of the tissues, then you need to go to a sanatorium with sources of nitrogen or hydrogen sulfide. After the surgical intervention, the patient can go to the health center treatment no earlier than 2 months later.

varicose vein spa treatment

Possible complications after treatment

Side effects vary depending on the type of therapy chosen. If there was a surgical intervention that involved the removal or cauterization of the veins, the patient experiences severe pain in the extremities for some time. With sclerotherapy, one of the disadvantages can be the reabsorption of the substance and the inclusion of the vein in the normal bloodstream. Then the therapy just won't work.

If there is no effect after treatment, the disease will start to develop according to the standard pattern. The patient will develop trophic ulcers in the affected areas of the leg. Then the active formation of blood clots will begin, which will lead to thrombophlebitis. If the cholesterol plaque comes off, the patient may face complete vein blockage at best. In the worst situation, the blood clot will enter the bloodstream and then the pulmonary artery. This can lead to disability or death of the patient.

Prevention and prevention of recurrence

Preventing the development of varicose veins is somewhat easier than treating them. The general recommendations are the same for all patients: it is necessary to do physiotherapy, get rid of bad habits, review the diet, and generally reduce the load on the legs. If you cannot comply with all the tips, then at least try to increase physical activity and relieve unnecessary stress on the limbs with the help of special accessories.

Physiotherapy exercises

The exercises are quite simple. This is an ordinary birch and scissors. The patient can perform arbitrary leg movements while lying on the floor. Stretching has a positive effect on the condition of varicose veins. Helps improve tissue trophism and prevents the development of osteochondrosis. But you can not perform exercises with free weights (dumbbells and bars over 10-15 kg). They create additional static stress, which is very damaging to the blood vessels.

People with varicose veins can swim and stretch. Staying in the water relieves stress on the joints and deep stretching will help improve blood flow to the pelvic organs and extremities. It is recommended that the instructor develop a series of exercises specific to the patient. VBNK patients should not visit saunas or baths.

physical therapy exercises for varicose veins of the extremities

Healthy lifestyle

Quitting alcohol and smoking is a safe step to prevent the development of varicose veins in the legs. The patient must establish a mode of work and rest. It is recommended to stretch every day. You should also minimize the influence of adverse factors on your body, that is, try to avoid stress, wear comfortable clothes, etc. It is advisable to travel everywhere on foot. A healthy person should walk at least 7 km per day.

Reduce leg loads

Many patients confuse reducing the load on the veins with the complete elimination of physical activity. These two points have no relationship. Exercise must be present in the life of the patient. Stretching is recommended every day, but the overall load on the legs can be reduced. This is done in several ways:

  1. Get rid of bad habits. Cross-legged is not allowed. Also, do not sit in a chair with one leg under you. In both cases, it creates additional stress on the vessels.
  2. Wear comfortable clothing and accessories. You shouldn't buy jeans 2 sizes smaller than you currently have, or try to walk in shoes with a narrow toe when the foot itself is wide. First of all, a person with a predisposition to varicose veins must have her own health.
  3. Wearing compression stockings. Today, in pharmacies and specialized stores, you can find different types of medical clothing. People predisposed to VBNK are advised to replace standard leggings, knee-highs, and socks with compression socks. Visually, they practically do not differ from ordinary ones, but in the process they reduce the load on the containers.
  4. The use of special accessories for relaxation. Various massage pads and applicators help relieve stress. Orthopedic and massage pillows can be used not only during work, but also after sleeping.
  5. Massage. You can do it yourself or entrust it to the hands of an experienced masseuse. This procedure is useful only in the initial stages of the disease. With the second and third stages of varicose veins, massage cannot be performed.

In general, the development of VBNK can be prevented by taking a comprehensive approach to treating the disease. Do not think that medications or exercises alone will help restore the vessels to their former elasticity. It is necessary to follow all the prescriptions of the doctor and, if necessary, not be afraid of surgical removal of damaged veins.

10.03.2021